Hydrogels with chitosan by HMC
There are various fields of application for chitosan-based hydrogels. Hydrogels can be manufactured by chemical or physical cross-linking. The hydrophilic groups of chitosan enable the absorption of water. Chitosan hydrogels are suitable as scaffold materials for tissue engineering by mimicking the extracellular matrix. Additionally an application as drug delivery system for drugs, protein or growth factors is also possible. In the following, we briefly present a number of publications about the development and application of chitosan hydrogels using chitosans by HMC.
Thermosensitive hydrogel as an in situ gelling antimicrobial ocular dressing
Mohammeda S., Chouhan G., Anuforom O., et al. (2017) Materials Science and Engineering: C, 78, 203-209.
In the study, chitosan/ß-glycerolphosphate hydrogels were developed as ocular wound dressings for sustained release of antibiotics to treat microbial keratitis. Moxifloxacin and gentamicin were incorporated into the chitosan/ß-glycerolphosphate gels and effectiveness was tested. Gels were non toxic to ocular cells in vitro and release of antibiotics successfully destroyed bacteria cultured with or without human ocular cells. Chitosan hydrogels could be administered as eye drops and improve as well as simplify the treatment of microbial keratitis.
Chitosan-containing hydrogel wound dressings prepared by radiation technique
Mozalewska W., Czechowska-Biskup R., Olejnik A. K. et al. (2017), Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 134, 1-7.
Topic of the study is the manufacturing of bioactive hydrogels for wound dressing by radiation initiated crosslinking. Chitosan of low molecular weight was mixed with lactic acid and added to a conventional PVP (poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)) and agar hydrogel dressing. Radiation-initiated degradation was applied to regulate the molecular weight of chitosan (39-132 kg/mol) in the solid state. Microbiological studies showed the antimicrobial effect of the chitosan-containing hydrogels.
The effect of β-glycerophosphate crosslinking on chitosan cytotoxicity and properties of hydrogels for vaginal application
Szymanska E., Sosnowska K., Miltyk W. et al. (2015) Polymers, 7 (11)
Development of mucoadhesive chitosan/ß-glycerophospate hydrogels for delivery of clotrimazole in the vaginal cavity. Chitosan/ß-GP hydrogels have improved mechanical properties and greater mucoadhesive properties for Chitosan/ß-GP hydrogels compared to reference mucoadhesive gel ReplensTM. The authors used low and medium molecular weight Chitosan (Chitosan 80/50 and Chitosan 80/200) for preparation of the hydrogels.
Periodontal tissue regeneration using enzymatically solidified chitosan hydrogels with or without cell loading
Yan X.Z., van den Beucken J.J., Cai X., Yu N., Jansen J.A., Yang F. (2015) Tissue Engineering Part A. 21 (5-6):1066-76.
The study investigates the in vivo biocompatibility and the potential of enzymatically solidified chitosan hydrogels (loaded with or without fluorescence labeled periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs)) for treatment of periodontal diseases. The chitosan (DDA 85%, Mw 500kDa) hydrogels were transplanted into rats with intrabony periodontal defects. Maxillae was analyzed histological and immunohistochemical after 4 weeks. The chitosan hydrogels were biocompatible and largely degraded after 4 weeks. The functional ligament length was induced and incidences of ankylosis in the rat model were reduced.
Xylan hemicellulose improves chitosan hydrogel for bone tissue regeneration
Bush J.R., Liang H., Dickinson M., Botchwey E.A. (2016) Polymers for Advanced Technologies. 27 (8): 1050-1055.
The US researcher combined xylan hemicelluloses with chitosan for creation of hydrogels to treat bone fractures. The injectable hydrogel gels at physiological temperatures and was tested in a tibia fracture model in mice and a non-union fracture model in rat femurs regarding its effect on regeneration. Application of xylan/chitosan hydrogels significantly improved healing compared to pure chitosan hydrogels. Successful bridging of the bone, osteogenic differentiation and mineralization were found in the tibia fracture model. The developed xylan/chitosan hydrogel can improve the healing response of serve bone fractures without addition of growth factors or therapeutic cells. The study shows the suitability of the xylan/chitosan composite as bone graft substitute.
The researchers used Chitoceutical Chitosan 85/1500 for creation of composite hydrogels.
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 Chitosan based hydrogels: characteristics and pharmaceutical applications. Ahmadi F., Oveisi Z., Samani S. M. et al. Res Pharm Sci. 2015 Jan-Feb; 10(1):1-16.