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Publications in April 2015

In April 139 publications have been released about chitosan, which mainly focused on topics like evaluation studies, pharmaceutical preparations and nanoparticles. The leading nations in the field of chitosan research are China (48 articles), India (18) and USA (13).

Top Journals Publications
International journal of biological macromolecules 24
Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications 8
International journal of pharmaceutics 6
Macromolecular bioscience 5
ACS applied materials & interfaces 5

Table: List of scientific journals, which published the highest number of chitosan-related articles in April 2015.
Source: GoPubMed

Chitosan and several chitosan derivatives are intensively studied for their drug delivery potential. Here we present two novel studies about chitosan-based nanoparticles, which might be interesting for different fields of research.

Fabrication and Characterization of Gd-DTPA-Loaded Chitosan–Poly(Acrylic Acid) Nanoparticles for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Ahmed A., Zhang C., Guo J et al.; Macromolecular Bioscience. doi: 10.1002/mabi.201500034. [Epub ahead of print] April 2015

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical scanning technique, which visualizes soft tissue structures by using an oscillating magnetic field. The authors of the present study developed chitosan-poly (acrylic acid)-based nanoparticles (CS-PAA) and adsorbed gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentacetate (Gd-DTPA) to the particle surface.
Gd-based contrast agents are commonly used for MRI tomography, as they can improve imaging signals. Gd-DTPA conjugates display enhance stability and beneficial paramagnetic properties. The adsorbtion of Gd-DTPA to CS-PAA nanoparticles should improve the efficiency of contrast agent delivery and minimize adhesion to blood components. 


apr 15
  • Nanoparticle size: 220 nm
  • Gd-DTPA adsorbed to CS-PAA surface and inside
  • Charge reversal in acidic solutions
  • Decreasing pH fasten Gd-DTPA release and increased longitudinal relaxivity
  • enhanced MRI contrast in vivo

Conclusion: CS-PAA nanoparticles can carry contrast agents like Gd-DTPA safely in neutral pH environments. At decreasing pH they gradually release their load. This pH sensitivity allows a targeted release at tumor sites. Furthermore, in vivo studies with anesthetized rabbits revealed an enhanced contrast of MRI images compared to single Gd-DTPA applications.


Intracellular sorting of differently charged chitosan derivatives and chitosan-based nanoparticles.

Zubareva A., Shcherbinina T., Varlamov V. and Svirshchevskaya E. Nanoscale. Vol.: 7 (17):7942-52. April 2015 

The aim of this study was to examine differently charged chitosan derivatives with regard to their cellular binding, penetration and intracellular trafficking. The authors analyzed positively charged hexanoyl-chitosan (HC) and HC-based nanoparticles (HCNPs). Furthermore, succinoyl-chitosan (SC) and its nanoparticles (SCNPs) have been studied, which are negatively charged. The experiments were performed on epithelial (MiaPaCa and MDCK) and macrophage (RAW264.7) cell lines.


  • binding to cell membrane: HC > SC > HCNPs and SCNPs
  • epithelia cell penetration: SC and SCNPs > HC; HCNPs did not enter
  • macrophages engulfed SC and SCNPs > HC and HCNPs
  • pH dependent intracellular sorting
  • SC and SCNPs transported to endosomes and lysosomes
  • HC sorted to mitochondria

Conclusion: The binding, penetration and intracellular sorting of chitosan derivatives in human cells seem to be largely determined by the charge of the polymer. Positively charged derivatives were mainly sorted to mitochondria, while negative polymers co-localized with lysosomal compartments. These organelles possess different pH values (mitochondria: pH 8.0; lysosomes: pH 4.5) and might facilitate the neutralization of charged polymers. The findings of this study could help to improve efficiency and cellular specificity of chitosan-based drug delivery systems.


chitosan, nanoparticles, magnetic resonance imaging

Congress and fairs

Meet us in person 2024:

  • 14th PBP World Meeting/ Research Pharm, Vienna, Austria, 18.-21.03.2024
  • EPNOE Workshop on Analytics of Polysaccharides, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland, 25.-26.06.2024
  • CPHI, Milan, Italy, 08.-10.10.2024
  • MEDICA 2024, Düsseldorf, Germany, 11.-14.11.2024

To arrange an appointment please contact Katja Richter via This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


  • Heppe Medical Chitosan GmbH
    Heinrich-Damerow-Strasse 1
    06120 Halle (Saale)
  • Tel.: +49 (0) 345 27 996 300
    Fax: +49 (0) 345 27 996 378
  • This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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