Stem cell therapy has received a lot of attention in recent years and has created new ways of treating the various conditions and ailments. The stem cells can differentiate into a wide variety of cell types and can positively influence inflammatory reactions. Clinical applications of stem cells are still limited, among others due to the high concentrations of ROS (reactive oxygen species) in the environment of the inflammation which limits retention of the transplanted stem cells.
A barrier against reactive oxygen species: chitosan/acellular dermal matrix scaffold enhances stem cell retention and improves cutaneous wound healing
Wei Lin, Xiaoyang Qi, Wenjing Guo, Danyang Liang, Heting Chen, Baoping Lin and Xiaoyuan Deng. Stem Cell Research & Therapy (2020) 11:383, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-01901-6
The authors of the study developed a novel scaffold material made of chitosan and acellular dermal matrix (ADM) as an environment for stem cells, which traps ROS and significantly weakens the inflammatory reaction. The developed scaffolds consisted of chitosan (80 % degree of deacetylation), collagenase and 2.5% glutaraldehyde. The acellular skin matrix was obtained from 5-week-old mice. The influence of the chitosan scaffold on the survival of mesenchymal stem cells and the behavior of neutrophils was investigated in vitro. In addition, the therapeutic efficiency in wound treatment was tested in a mouse model.
- Matrix with chitosan intercepts ROS in the microenvironment of the stem cells to protect them against oxidative stress
- Attenuation of the inflammatory response triggered by neutrophils
- Improvement of the retention of mesenchymal stem cells in the wound area over 3 weeks
- Improved growth of blood vessels in the wound area
- the chitosan / ADM scaffold loaded with stem cells accelerated wound closure, reduced scarring and supported wound healing in the mouse model
Conclusion: Compared to conventional matrices based on collagen, the chitosan-based system offers improved environmental conditions for the use of stem cells in wound healing.