In den ersten zwei Monaten des Jahres wurden v.a. in den Zeitschriften: biomaterials , biomed mater res a , j mater sci-mater m , langmuir , biomacromolecules  Artikel über Chitosannanopartikel veröffentlicht. Die Autoren kamen aus Asien, Europa und Nordamerika. Wir wollen Ihnen die behandelten Themengebiete im folgenden Artikel kurz vorstellen.
1: Anal Biochem 2009 Jan;384(1):130-5
Sensitive amperometric immunosensor for alpha-fetoprotein based on carbon nanotube/gold nanoparticle doped chitosan film
Lin, Jiehua, He, Chunyan, Zhang, Lijuan, Zhang, Shusheng, Key Laboratory of Ecochemical Engineering, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, People's Republic of China
A novel strategy for the fabrication of sensitive immunosensor to detect alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in human serum has been proposed. The immunosensor was prepared by immobilizing AFP antigen onto the glassy carbon electrode (GC) modified by gold nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes doped chitosan (GNP/CNT/Ch) film. ... Under the optimized experimental conditions, the resulting immunosensor could detect AFP in a linear range from 1 to 55 ng ml(-1) with a detection limit of 0.6 ng ml(-1). The proposed immunosensor, by using GNP/CNT/Ch as the immobilization matrix of AFP, offers an excellent amperometric response of ALP-anti-AFP to 1-NP. The immunosensor provided a new alternative to the application of other antigens or other bioactive molecules.
PMID: 18848914 [found with GoPubMed]
2: Chemosphere 2009 Feb;
Kinetics of hexavalent chromium removal from water by chitosan-Fe(0) nanoparticles
Geng, B, Jin, Z, Li, T, Qi, X, Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, PR China
Chitosan-Fe(0) nanoparticles (chitosan-Fe(0)) were prepared using nontoxic and biodegradable chitosan as a stabilizer. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the influences of initial Cr(VI) concentration and other factors on Cr(VI) reduction on the surface of the chitosan-Fe(0). ... This study demonstrates that chitosan-Fe(0) has the potential to become an effective agent for in situ subsurface environment remediation.
PMID: 19217139 [found with GoPubMed]
3: Biomaterials 2009 Feb;
Factors influencing the transfection efficiency of ultra low molecular weight chitosan/hyaluronic acid nanoparticles
Duceppe, N, Tabrizian, M, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duff Medical Sciences Building, 3775 University Street, McGill University, Montreal H3A 2B4, Canada; Centre for Biorecognition and Biosensors, Duff Medical Sciences Building, 3775 University Street, McGill University, Montreal H3A 2B4, Canada
The present work describes nanoparticles made of ultra low molecular weight chitosan (ULMWCh)/hyaluronic acid (HA) as novel potential carriers for gene delivery. Small and monodispersed nanoparticles with high in vitro transfection capabilities have been obtained by the complexation of these two polyelectrolytes. ULMWCh (<10kDa) presents more advantageous characteristics over the higher molecular weight chitosan for clinical applications, namely increased solubility at physiological pH and improved DNA release. ... This high transfection efficiency of our non-viral gene delivery system could be attributed to the synergic effect of ULMWCh and low charge density of the HA chain for easy release of DNA which makes the system suitable for targeted gene delivery.
PMID: 19201022 [found with GoPubMed]
4: J Food Sci 2009 Jan;74(1):N1-8
Formation of biocompatible nanoparticles via the self-assembly of chitosan and modified lecithin
Chuah, A M, Kuroiwa, T, Ichikawa, S, Kobayashi, I, Nakajima, M, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
The formation of biocompatible nanoparticles via the self-assembly of chitosan (CHI) and modified lecithin (ML) was studied. Stable nanoparticles in the size range of 123 to 350 nm were formed at over a wide molar mixing ratios of CHI/ML solutions (amino group/phosphate group) (NH(3) (+)/PO(3) (-)) and total polyelectrolyte (PE) concentrations (0.1 to 1 wt%) except at intermediate molar ratios when the surface charge was close to neutrality. ... The ability of the nanoparticle suspensions to be converted to lyophilized powder or concentrated suspension was also demonstrated.
PMID: 19200109 [found with GoPubMed ]
5: Nanomedicine 2009 Jan;
Preparation and in vitro evaluation of mucoadhesion and permeation enhancement of thiolated chitosan-pHEMA core-shell nanoparticles
Moghaddam, F A, Atyabi, F, Dinarvand, R, Novel Drug Delivery Systems Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical Sciences/University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; Research and Development Department, Tehran Chemie Pharmaceutical Co., Tehran, Iran
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the in vitro mucoadhesion and permeation enhancement properties of thiolated chitosan (chitosan-glutathione)-coated poly(hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate) nanoparticles. Core-shell nanoparticles were prepared by radical emulsion polymerization method initiated by cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate. ... All nanoparticle systems showed mucoadhesion and improved apparent permeation coefficient (P(app)) of FD4. Nanoparticles prepared by thiolated chitosan with medium molecular weight revealed the most mucoadhesion and penetration enhancement properties.
PMID: 19186220 [found with GoPub]
6: Immunobiology 2009;214(2):87-99
The immunologic effect of TGF-beta1 chitosan nanoparticle plasmids on ovalbumin-induced allergic BALB/c mice
Li, Fei, Wang, Lei, Jin, Xin-Ming, Yan, Cong-Huai, Jiang, Shan, Shen, Xiao-Ming, Department of Pediatric Development and Behavioral Shanghai, Children's Medical Center, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tung University, Shanghai, China
Studies suggested that an increased transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) level in the intestinal tract helps to alleviate symptoms of food allergy. An efficient method for in vivo delivery of TGF-beta is yet to be developed. In this report, we investigated some DNA-based therapeutic strategies. Our results demonstrate that a sustainable increase of TGF-beta protein in mouse intestinal tissue can be induced after oral administration by gavage of a TGF-beta expressing DNA vector that was packed in chitosan nanoparticles. Concomitantly, a significant amelioration of ovalbumin-induced food allergy symptoms was observed. Thus, our study supports this therapy being perhaps a better alternative to the previously reported protein-based strategies.
PMID: 19167987 [found with GoPubMed]
7: Fish Shellfish Immunol 2009 Jan;
Oral delivery of DNA construct using chitosan nanoparticles to protect the shrimp from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)
Rajeshkumar, S, Venkatesan, C, Sarathi, M, Sarathbabu, V, Thomas, J, Anver Basha, K, Sahul Hameed, A S, Aquaculture Biotechnology Division, Department of Zoology, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam 632 509, Vellore Dist., Tamil Nadu, India
The protective efficacy of oral delivery of a DNA construct containing the VP28 gene of WSSV encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles was investigated in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The results showed that significant survival was obtained in WSSV-challenged shrimp at 7, 15 and 30 days post-treatment (relative survival, 85%, 65% and 50%, respectively) whereas 100% mortality was observed in the control shrimp fed with feed containing chitosan/pcDNA 3.1 or chitosan/PBS complex. ... The present study also measured the changes in the level of important immunological parameters such as prophenoloxidase, superoxide dismutase and superoxide anion in hemolymph of chitosan-encapsulated VP28 DNA-treated and controls shrimp. The study also correlated the changes in the level of immunological parameters with the survival percentage and protective efficacy of oral route of DNA construct against WSSV in shrimp.
PMID: 19141321 [found with GoPubMed]
8: J Pharm Pharmacol 2009 Jan;61(1):3-12
Cancer, chitosan nanoparticles and catalytic nucleic acids
Tan, Mei Lin, Choong, Peter F M, Dass, Crispin R, Department of Orthopaedics, University of Melbourne, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, P.O. Box 2900, Fitzroy 3065, Australia
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to examine gene therapy involving DNAzyme and siRNA encapsulation into chitosan nanoparticles, discussing the current and future status of this drug delivery system in enhancing drug delivery and cancer therapy. ... One recent drug delivery system has revolved around the use of chitosan nanoparticle technology, where therapeutics are encapsulated into nanoparticles and targeted to tumours. SUMMARY: Though few, attempts at encapsulating therapeutics such as deoxyribozymes and small or short interfering RNA have been optimistic and encouraging.
PMID: 19126291 [found with GoPubMed]
9: Biomaterials 2009 Mar;30(9):1797-808
Effects of incorporation of poly(gamma-glutamic acid) in chitosan/DNA complex nanoparticles on cellular uptake and transfection efficiency
Peng, Shu-Fen, Yang, Mei-Ju, Su, Chun-Jen, Chen, Hsin-Lung, Lee, Po-Wei, Wei, Ming-Cheng, Sung, Hsing-Wen, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC
Chitosan (CS)/DNA complex nanoparticles (NPs) have been considered as a vector for gene delivery. Although advantageous for DNA packing and protection, CS-based complexes may lead to difficulties in DNA release once arriving at the site of action. In this study, an approach through modifying their internal structure by incorporating a negatively charged poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA) in CS/DNA complexes (CS/DNA/gamma-PGA NPs) is reported. ... We further demonstrated that besides a non-specific charged-mediated binding to cell membranes, there were specific trypsin-cleavable proteins involved in the internalization of CS/DNA/gamma-PGA NPs. The aforementioned results indicated that gamma-PGA played multiple important roles in enhancing the cellular uptake and transfection efficiency of CS/DNA/gamma-PGA NPs.
PMID: 19110309 [found with GoPubMed]
10: Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2009 Jan;68(1):1-6
Chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles as carriers of 5-fluorouracil: preparation, characterization and cytotoxicity studies
Zhu, Longzhang, Ma, Jingwei, Jia, Nengqin, Zhao, Yu, Shen, Hebai, Life and Environment Science College, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, PR China
The chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CS MNPs) were prepared as carriers of 5-Fluorouracil (CS-5-Fu MNPs) through a reverse microemulsion method. The characteristics of CS-5-Fu MNPs were determined by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR spectroscopy and vibrating-sampling magnetometry (VSM). It was found that the synthesized CS-5-Fu MNPs were spherical in shape with an average size of 100+/-20 nm, low aggregation and good magnetic responsivity. Meanwhile, the drug content and encapsulation rate of the nanoparticles was 16-23% and 60-92%, respectively. These CS-5-Fu MNPs also demonstrated sustained release of 5-Fu at 37 degrees C in different buffer solutions. The cytotoxicity of CS-5-Fu MNPs towards K562 cancer cells was investigated. The result showed that CS-5-Fu MNPs retained significant antitumor activities. Additionally, it was observed that the FITC-labeled CS-5-Fu MNPs could effectively enter into the SPCA-1 cancer cells and induced cell apoptosis.
PMID: 19013060 [found with GoPubMed]
11: J Colloid Interface Sci 2009 Feb;330(1):29-37
Removal of Cu2+ from aqueous solution by chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles modified with alpha-ketoglutaric acid
Zhou, Yu-Ting, Nie, Hua-Li, Branford-White, Christopher, He, Zhi-Yan, Zhu, Li-Min, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China
Chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CCMNPs), modified with a biodegradable and eco-friendly biologic reagent, alpha-ketoglutaric acid (alpha-KA), was used as a magnetic nanoadsorbent to remove toxic Cu(2+) ions from aqueous solution. ...
PMID: 18990406 [found with GoPubMed]
12: Anal Bioanal Chem 2009 Jan;393(1):207-15
Analytical characterization of chitosan nanoparticles for peptide drug delivery applications
Ieva, E, Trapani, A, Cioffi, N, Ditaranto, N, Monopoli, A, Sabbatini, L, Department of Chemistry, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126, Bari, Italy
Chitosan-cyclodextrin hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained by the ionic gelation process in the presence of glutathione (GSH), chosen as a model drug. NPs were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy and zeta-potential measurements. Furthermore, a detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study was carried out in both conventional and depth-profile modes. The combination of controlled ion-erosion experiments and a scrupulous curve-fitting approach allowed for the first time the quantitative study of the GSH in-depth distribution in the NPs. NPs were proven to efficiently encapsulate GSH in their inner cores, thus showing promising perspectives as drug carriers.
PMID: 18958447 [found with GoPubMed]
13: Acta Biomater 2009 Jan;5(1):115-23
Development of bioactive and biodegradable chitosan-based injectable systems containing bioactive glass nanoparticles
Couto, Daniela S, Hong, Zhongkui, Mano, João F, 3B's Research Group - Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, Department of Polymer Engineering, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
There is increasing interest in the development of new tissue engineering strategies to deliver cells and bioactive agents encapsulated in a biodegradable matrix through minimally invasive procedures. The present work proposes to combine chitosan-beta-glycerophosphate salt formulations with bioactive glass nanoparticles in order to conceive novel injectable thermo-responsive hydrogels for orthopaedic reconstructive and regenerative medicine applications. The initial rheological properties and the gelation points of the developed organic-inorganic in situ thermosetting systems were revealed to be adequate for intracorporal injection. In vitro bioactivity tests, using incubation protocols in simulated body fluid (SBF), allowed the observation of bone-like apatite formation in the hydrogel formulations containing bioactive nanoparticles. The density of the apatite formed increased with increasing bioactive glass content and soaking time in SBF. These results indicate that the stimuli-responsive hydrogels could potentially be used as temporary injectable scaffolds in bone tissue engineering applications.
PMID: 18835230 [found with GoPubMed]
14: Cancer Lett 2009 Jan;273(2):210-20
Colorectal cancer cell detection by 5-aminolaevulinic acid-loaded chitosan nano-particles
Yang, Shu-Jyuan, Shieh, Ming-Jium, Lin, Feng-Huei, Lou, Pei-Jen, Peng, Cheng-Liang, Wei, Ming-Feng, Yao, Cheng-Jun, Lai, Ping-Shan, Young, Tai-Horng, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec.1, Jen-Ai Road, Taipei 100, Taiwan
Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of malignant death in Taiwan because it often remains undetected until later stages of the disease. In this study, we designed an oral form nano-particle to encapsulate 5-aminolaevulinic acid (5-ALA) to improve the detection of colorectal cancer cells in vivo. The nano-particle should escape from bacteria uptake in the gastrointestinal tract which seriously interferes the results of endoscopic observation. In this study, chitosan was mixed with sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and 5-ALA to prepare chitosan nano-particles (CN) and 5-ALA loaded chitosan nano-particles (CNA) by adding different pH values and concentrations of 5-ALA solution. ...
PMID: 18809246 [found with GoPubMed]
15: J Pharm Sci 2009 Mar;98(3):970-84
Lung-specific delivery of paclitaxel by chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticles via transient formation of microaggregates
Yang, Rui, Yang, Su-Geun, Shim, Won-Sik, Cui, Fude, Cheng, Gang, Kim, In-Wha, Kim, Dae-Duk, Chung, Suk-Jae, Shim, Chang-Koo, National Research Laboratory for Transporters Targeted Drug Design, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea
Chitosan-modified paclitaxel-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 200-300 nm in distilled water were prepared by a solvent evaporation method. The mean diameter increased dramatically in contact with the mouse (CDF(1)) plasma, as a function of chitosan concentration in the modification solution (e.g., 2670.5 nm for 0.7% chitosan-modified nanoparticles, NP(3)), but reverted to almost its original size (i.e., 350.7 nm for NP(3)) following 5 min of gentle agitation. The zeta potential of PLGA nanoparticles was changed to positive by the chitosan modification. ... Transient formation of aggregates in the blood stream followed by enhanced trapping in the lung capillaries, and electrical interaction-mediated enhanced uptake across the endothelial cells of the lung tumor capillary appear to be responsible for the lung-tumor-specific distribution of the chitosan modified nanoparticles.
PMID: 18661542 [found with GoPubMed]
16: J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2009 Jan;88(1):150-61
Chitosan-NAC nanoparticles as a vehicle for nasal absorption enhancement of insulin
Wang, Xin, Zheng, Chao, Wu, Zhongming, Teng, Dayong, Zhang, Xinge, Wang, Zhen, Li, Chaoxing, The Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials of Ministry Education, Institute of Polymer Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, People's Republic of China
The purpose of this work was to investigate chitosan-N-acetyl-L-cysteine (chitosan-NAC) nanoparticles as a potential carrier system for the nasal delivery of insulin. For the study, we used insulin-loaded chitosan-NAC nanoparticles (140-210 nm in diameter) prepared by in situ gelation with tripolyphosphate (TPP), with positive zeta potential values of +19.5-31.7 mV and insulin loading capacities of 13-42%. In light of these observations, the novel thiolated chitosan nanoparticles represent a promising vehicle for nasal insulin administration.
PMID: 18618466 [found with GoPubMed]
17: J Biomed Mater Res A 2009 Jan;88(1):1-11
Targeting to carcinoma cells with chitosan- and starch-coated magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia
Kim, Dong-Hyun, Kim, Kyoung-Nam, Kim, Kwang-Mahn, Lee, Yong-Keun, Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul 120-752, Korea
The delivery of hyperthermic thermoseeds to a specific target site with minimal side effects is an important challenge in targeted hyperthermia, which employs magnetic method and functional polymers. An external magnetic field is used to control the site-specific targeting of the magnetic nanoparticles. Polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles can confer a higher affinity to the biological cell membranes. In this study, uncoated, chitosan-coated, and starch-coated magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized for use as a hyperthermic thermoseed. ... The targeting of magnetic nanoparticles in hyperthermia was improved using a controlled magnetic field and a chitosan-coating. Therefore, chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles are expected to be promising materials for use in magnetic targeted hyperthermia.
PMID: 18257079 [found with GoPubMed]
18: Biomacromolecules 2009 Jan;
Biodegradable Nanoparticles Based on Linoleic Acid and Poly(beta-malic acid) Double Grafted Chitosan Derivatives as Carriers of Anticancer Drugs
Zhao, Z, He, M, Yin, L, Bao, J, Shi, L, Wang, B, Tang, C, Yin, C, State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China, and Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
Novel chitosan derivatives carrying linoleic acid (LA) as hydrophobic moieties and poly(beta-malic acid) (PMLA) as hydrophilic moieties (LA/PMLA double grafted chitosan, LMC) were synthesized. It self-assembled into nanoparticles of 190-350 nm in water, which carried negative surface charges in physiological pH. ... Therefore, the LMC nanoparticles could be an effective and safe vehicle for systemic administration of hydrophobic drugs, especially PTX.
PMID: 19175304 [found with GoPubMed]
19: Biomaterials 2009 Jan;
Long-circulating polymeric nanoparticles bearing a combinatorial coating of PEG and water-soluble chitosan
Sheng, Y, Liu, C, Yuan, Y, Tao, X, Yang, F, Shan, X, Zhou, H, Xu, F, The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, PR China
A major obstacle in the development of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) as effective drug delivery vesicles is the rapid clearance from blood. In order to realize a significant prolongation in blood circulation, a combinatorial design, covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to polylactic acid (PLA) and physical adsorption of water-soluble chitosan (WSC) to particle surface, has been developed for surface modification of PLA NPs. ... More WSC materials need to be evaluated, but the present data suggest that, a combinatorial coating of PEG and PDC greatly prolongs the systemic circulation of NPs and represents a significant step in the development of long-circulating drug delivery carriers.
PMID: 19150737 [found with GoPubMed]
20: J Mater Sci Mater Med 2009 Jan;
PH-sensitive nanoparticles self-assembled from a novel class of biodegradable amphiphilic copolymers based on chitosan
Cai, G, Jiang, H, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, People's Republic of China
A new type of biodegradable amphiphilic graft copolymers, PEG-g-hexanoyl chitosan, was synthesized by a facile scheme. The self-assemble properties of the copolymers were studied by TEM, fluorometry and dynamic light scattering. It was found that spherical nanoparticles of the copolymers could be formed through dialysis method. With the increase of PEG content in the copolymers, the average diameter of the nanoparticles decreased from about 180 to 40 nm. PEG fraction in the copolymers has little effect on the copolymer CAC. The micellization of the copolymers was strongly dependent of the medium pH. When pH was lowered from 7.2 to 6.8, the average diameter of the nanoparticles dramatically changed from about 180 to 60 nm.
PMID: 19132500 [found with GoPubMed]
21: Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2009 Feb;71(2):257-63
Chitosan/cyclodextrin nanoparticles can efficiently transfect the airway epithelium in vitro
Teijeiro-Osorio, Desirée, Remuñán-López, Carmen, Alonso, María José, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
The main goal of the present study was to investigate the potential of a new generation of hybrid polysaccharide nanocarriers, composed of chitosan (CS) and anionic cyclodextrins (CDs), for gene delivery to the airway epithelium. More specifically, these nanocarriers were investigated with regard to their ability to enter epithelial cells and promote gene expression in the Calu-3 cell culture model. ...Overall, this report is the first evidence of the potential of a new generation of safe polysaccharide nanocarriers for gene delivery to the airway epithelium.
PMID: 18955137 [found with GoPubMed]
22: Bioelectrochemistry 2009 Feb;74(2):289-94
Layer by-layer assembled carbon nanotube films with molecule recognition function and lower capacitive background current
Kong, Bo, Zeng, Jinxiang, Luo, Guangming, Luo, Shenglian, Wei, Wanzhi, Li, Jun, State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan, Changsha 410082, PR China
Multilayer films of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with molecule recognition function were assembled on glassy carbon (GC) electrode with lower capacitive background current by two steps: first, MWCNTs interacted with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) with the aid of sonication to form beta-CD-MWCNTs nanocomposite, then the beta-CD-MWCNTs nanocomposite was assembled on GC electrode using layer-by-layer (LBL) method based on electrostatic interaction of positively charged biopolymer chitosan and negatively charged MWCNTs. ... The MWCNTs multilayer films with beta-CD were studied with respect to the electrocatalytic activity toward dopamine (DA). Compared with the MWCNTs multilayer films without beta-CD, the MWCNTs multilayer films with beta-CD possesses a much lower capacitive background current and higher electrocatalytic activity in phosphate buffer, which was ascribed to the relatively compact three-dimensional structure of the MWCNTs multilayer films with beta-CD and the excellent molecule recognition function of beta-CD.
PMID: 19058766 [found with GoPubMed]
23: Biomacromolecules 2009 Feb;10(2):243-9
New generation of hybrid poly/oligosaccharide nanoparticles as carriers for the nasal delivery of macromolecules
Teijeiro-Osorio, Desirée, Remuñán-López, Carmen, Alonso, María José, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain
We have recently reported a new generation of polysaccharide nanoparticles consisting of chitosan (CS) and cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives, which exhibit a number of advantages when compared to the classical CS nanoparticles. ... Finally, the in vivo evaluation in conscious rabbits revealed that insulin-loaded nanoparticles (association efficiencies > 88%) were able to significantly decrease plasma glucose levels (more than 35% reduction). Overall, these results suggest that these new nanoparticles work as nasal carriers and, therefore, have a potential for enhancing the transport of complex molecules across the nasal barrier.
PMID: 19117404 [found with GoPubMed]
24: Biomaterials 2009 Jan;
In vivo evaluation of safety and efficacy of self-assembled nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery
Sonaje, K, Lin, Y H, Juang, J H, Wey, S P, Chen, C T, Sung, H W, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC
A variety of approaches have been studied in the past to overcome the problems encountered with the oral delivery of insulin, but with little success. In this study, self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) with a pH-sensitive characteristic were prepared by mixing the anionic poly-gamma-glutamic acid solution with the cationic chitosan solution in the presence of MgSO(4) and sodium tripolyphosphate. ... These findings suggest that the NPs prepared in the study are a promising vehicle for oral delivery of insulin.
PMID: 19176244 [found with GoPubMed]
25: Bioelectrochemistry 2009 Jan;
A microbial biosensor based on bacterial cells immobilized on chitosan matrix
Odaci D, Timur, S, Telefoncu, A, Ege University, Faculty of Science, Biochemistry Department, 35100 Bornova-Izmir, Turkey
A bio-electrochemical system consisting of Gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2343 cells as a biological material and carbon nanotube (CNT)-free and CNT-modified chitosan as immobilizing matrices has been developed. ...
PMID: 19196553 [found with GoPubMed]
26: Talanta 2009 Apr;78(1):120-5
Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of horseradish peroxidase immobilized in hybrid organic-inorganic film of chitosan/sol-gel/carbon nanotubes
Kang, Xinhuang, Wang, Jun, Tang, Zhiwen, Wu, Hong, Lin, Yuehe, College of Science, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, 524088, PR China
A hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposite film of chitosan/sol-gel/multi-walled carbon nanotubes was constructed for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). This film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Direct electron transfer (DET) and bioelectrocatalysis of HRP incorporated into the composite film were investigated. The results indicate that the film can provide a favorable microenvironment for HRP to perform DET on the surface of glassy carbon electrodes with a pair of quasi-reversible redox waves and to retain its bioelectrocatalytic activity toward H(2)O(2).
PMID: 19174213 [found with GoPubMed]
27: Anal Chim Acta 2009 Mar;635(1):58-62
Solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensor through the electrodeposition of Ru(bpy)3(2+)/AuNPs/chitosan composite film onto electrode
Yun, Wen, Xu, Ying, Dong, Ping, Ma, Xiongxiong, He, Pingang, Fang, Yuzhi, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, ZhongShan Road North 3663, Shanghai 20062, PR China
Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)) has been successfully immobilized onto electrode through the electrodeposition of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)/AuNPs/chitosan composite film. ... Consequently, this Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)/AuNPs/chitosan modified electrode has been used in ECL to detect tripropylamine, and the detection limit was 5x10(-10) M.
PMID: 19200479 [found with GoPubMed]
28: Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul 2009;3(1):8-25
Chitosan and its use in design of insulin delivery system
Wong, Tin W, Faculty of Pharmacy, Non-Destructive Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research Centre, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. email@example.com
The global burden of diabetes is estimated to escalate from about 171 million in 2000 to 366 million people in 2030. The routine of diabetes treatment by injection of insulin incurs pain and has been one major factor negating the quality of life of diabetic patients. The possibility of administering insulin via alternative routes such as oral and nasal pathways has been investigated over the years, but with insulin experiencing risks of enzymatic degradation and poor transmucosal absorption. ... Combination of chitosan and fatty acid as hydrophobic nanoparticles promotes the insulin absorption via lymphoid tissue. Attainment of optimized formulations with higher levels of pharmacological bioavailability is deemed possible in future through targeted delivery of insulin using chitosan with specific adhesiveness to the intended absorption mucosa.
PMID: 19149726 [found with GoPubMed]
29: Langmuir 2009 Jan;25(1):3-8
Magnetic chitosan nanocomposites: a useful recyclable tool for heavy metal ion removal
Liu, Xiaowang, Hu, Qiyan, Fang, Zhen, Zhang, Xiaojun, Zhang, Beibei, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
Magnetic chitosan nanocomposites have been synthesized on the basis of amine-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles. These nanocomposites can be removed conveniently from water with the help of an external magnet because of their exceptional properties. The nanocomposites were applied to remove heavy metal ions from water because chitosan that is inactive on the surface of the magnetic nanoparticles is coordinated with them. The interaction between chitosan and heavy metal ions is reversible, which means that those ions can be removed from chitosan in weak acidic deionized water with the assistance of ultrasound radiation. On the basis of the reasons referred to above, synthesized magnetic chitosan nanocomposites were used as a useful recyclable tool for heavy metal ion removal. This work provides a potential platform for developing a unique route for heavy metal ion removal from wastewater.
PMID: 19032060 [found with GoPubMed]
30: Biomaterials 2009 Feb;30(5):892-901
BMP-2 plasmid loaded PLGA/HAp composite scaffolds for treatment of bone defects in nude mice
Nie, Hemin, Ho, Mei-Ling, Wang, Chih-Kuang, Wang, Chi-Hwa, Fu, Yin-Chih, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, Singapore 117576, Singapore
We studied three different types of scaffolds, encapsulating bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) plasmid, in terms of their performances in bone regeneration in nude mice. The plasmid was loaded into fibrous matrices in three different ways: coating of naked DNA (Group A) or DNA/chitosan nanoparticles (Group B) onto scaffolds after fiber fabrication by dripping, and encapsulation of DNA/chitosan nanoparticles into scaffold by mixing them with PLGA/DCM solution before fiber fabrication (Group C)....The results revealed that the bioactivity of BMP-2 plasmid released from all three kinds of scaffolds was well maintained; this eventually helped improve the healing of segmental defects in vivo. Interestingly, the three kinds of scaffolds released DNA or DNA nanoparticles in different modes and their performances in bone healing were diverse. These observations demonstrate that the in vivo performance of these newly developed DNA delivery devices correlates well with their in vitro release profiles.
PMID: 19010530 [found with GoPubMed]
31: Biotechnol Bioeng 2009 Feb;102(2):390-9
AI-2 biosynthesis module in a magnetic nanofactory alters bacterial response via localized synthesis and delivery
Fernandes, Rohan, Bentley, William E, Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, 5115 Plant Sciences Building #036, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
Nanofactories are nano-dimensioned and comprised of modules serving various functions that alter the response of targeted cells when deployed by locally synthesizing and delivering cargo to the surfaces of the targeted cells. In its basic form, a nanofactory consists of a minimum of two functional modules: a cell capture module and a synthesis module. In this work, magnetic nanofactories that alter the response of targeted bacteria by the localized synthesis and delivery of the "universal" bacterial quorum sensing signal molecule autoinducer AI-2 are demonstrated. ... The prospects of using such multi-modular nanofactories in developing the next generation of antimicrobials based on intercepting and interrupting quorum sensing based signaling are discussed.
PMID: 18949758 [found with GoPubMed]
32: J Mater Sci Mater Med 2009 Mar;20(3):673-80
Synthesis and properties of a novel methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-modified galactosylated chitosan derivative
Zhang, Tao, Yu, Yuan Yuan, Li, Dong, Peng, Rong, Li, Ying, Jiang, Qing, Dai, Ping, Gao, Rong, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064, People's Republic of China
Chitosan and its derivatives are attractive non-viral vectors. To produce target-cell specificity and improve the solubility of chitosan, a novel chitosan derivative, modified with galactose and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) was synthesized, and structure changes of chitosan and its derivatives were characterized. Compared to chitosan, the solution viscosity of the novel chitosan derivative drastically decreased. And, the degree of substitution (DS) of chitosan by galactose and mPEG were calculated as 0.09 and 0.30. The average diameter and zeta potential of mPEGylated galactosylated chitosan (GaC) nanoparticle containing VRMFat plasmid were 178 nm and +2.93 mV, suggesting suitable properties for gene delivery system. The gel electrophoresis confirmed that the plasmid DNA was remained completely by the mPEGylated GaC nanoparticle. And, the cytotoxic effect of mPEGylated GaC nanoparticles on human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells was negligible in comparison with that of control chitosans. Therefore, it is expected that the mPEGylated GaC will have the potential as a targeting gene delivery system for a further application.
PMID: 18949535 [found with GoPubMed]
33: Bioelectrochemistry 2009 Feb;74(2):246-53
Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase immobilized on NdPO4 nanoparticles/chitosan composite film on glassy carbon electrodes and its biosensing application
Sheng, Qinglin, Luo, Kai, Li, Lei, Zheng, Jianbin, Institute of Analytical Science/Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710069, China
The direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized on a composite matrix based on chitosan (CHIT) and NdPO(4) nanoparticles (NPs) underlying on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was achieved. The cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to characterize the modified electrode. In deaerated buffer solutions, the cyclic voltammetry of the composite films of GOx/NdPO(4) NPs/CHIT showed a pair of well-behaved redox peaks that are assigned to the redox reaction of GOx, confirming the effective immobilization of GOx on the composite film. The electron transfer rate constant was estimated to be 5.0 s(-1). The linear dynamic range for the detection of glucose was 0.15-10 mM with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 and the detection limit was estimated at about 0.08 mM (S/N=3). The calculated apparent Michaelis-Menten constant was 2.5 mM, which suggested a high affinity of the enzyme-substrate. The immobilized GOx in the NdPO(4) NPs/CHIT composite film retained its bioactivity. Furthermore, the method presented here can be easily extended to immobilize and obtain the direct electrochemistry of other redox enzymes or proteins.
PMID: 18842465 [found with GoPubMed]
34: Mol Ther 2009 Jan;17(1):162-8
Chitosan/siRNA nanoparticle-mediated TNF-alpha knockdown in peritoneal macrophages for anti-inflammatory treatment in a murine arthritis model
Howard, Kenneth A, Paludan, Søren R, Behlke, Mark A, Besenbacher, Flemming, Deleuran, Bent, Kjems, Jørgen, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), University of Aarhus, Aarhus C, Denmark. email@example.com
Secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by macrophages plays a predominant role in the development and progression of rheumatoid arthritis. We demonstrate that knockdown of TNF-alpha expression in systemic macrophages by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of chitosan/small interfering RNA (siRNA) nanoparticles in mice downregulates systemic and local inflammation. ... This work demonstrates nanoparticle-mediated TNF-alpha knockdown in peritoneal macrophages as a method to reduce both local and systemic inflammation, thereby presenting a novel strategy for arthritis treatment.
PMID: 18827803 [found with GoPubMed]
35: J Biomed Mater Res A 2009 Mar;88(3):569-80
Chitosan/nanohydroxyapatite composite membranes via dynamic filtration for guided bone regeneration
Teng, Shu-Hua, Lee, Eun-Jung, Yoon, Byung-Ho, Shin, Du-Sik, Kim, Hyoun-Ee, Oh, Joong-Soo, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744, Korea
Chitosan/hydroxyapatite (HA) composite membranes were prepared by the coprecipitation method and a subsequent dynamic filtration and freeze-drying process. The influences of the HA content of the membranes on their phase and morphology, mechanical properties, and bioactivity were investigated. FTIR analysis revealed that chitosan and HA had good miscibility over a wide range of compositions. Needle-like HA nanocrystals with low crystallinity were uniformly embedded in the chitosan matrix. As the HA content was increased, the tensile strength of the membranes exhibited a steady decrease, while the elastic modulus increased by a factor of 2 when 20% HA was added. The results of the in vitro cell culture showed that the highest alkaline phosphatase level was achieved when 30% HA was contained in the composites.
PMID: 18306317 [found with GoPubMed]
36: Anal Biochem 2009 Feb;385(2):264-9
Amperometric sensor based on ferrocene-modified multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposites as electron mediator for the determination of glucose
Qiu, Jian-Ding, Zhou, Wen-Mei, Guo, Jin, Wang, Rui, Liang, Ru-Ping, Department of Chemistry and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, Nanchang, PR China. firstname.lastname@example.org
A kind of nanocomposite with good dispersion in water was prepared through covalent adsorption of ferrocenecarboxaldehyde on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) for electrical communication between glucose oxidase (GOD) and electrode. The ferrocene-modified multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposites (MWNTs-Fc) could be conveniently cast on electrode surfaces. With the aid of chitosan, GOD was then immobilized on the nanostructure film to form a reagentless amperometric sensor for glucose determination. FTIR spectra and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the nanocomposites. The presence of both ferrocene as mediator of electron transfer and MWNTs as conductor enhanced greatly the enzymatic response to the oxidation of glucose. The novel biosensor exhibited a fast response toward glucose with a detection limit of 3.0 x 10(-6) mol/L and the linear range extended up to 3.8 x 10(-3) mol/L.
PMID: 19100707 [found with GoPubMed]
37: Langmuir 2009 Feb;
Acid Polysaccharide-Induced Amorphous Calcium Carbonate (ACC) Films: Colloidal Nanoparticle Self-Organization Process
Zhong, C, Chu, C C, Fiber and Polymer Science Program, Department of Fiber Science and Apparel Design, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-4401, and Biomedical Engineering Program, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-4401
Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) plays important roles in biomineralization, and its synthesis in vitro has been of keen interest in the field of biomimetic materials. In this report, we describe the synthesis of ACC films using a novel acid polysaccharide, maleic chitosan, as an additive. We prepared the films by directly depositing them onto TEM grids and examined them using polarized optical microscopy (POM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). This enabled us to examine their formation and mesostructure without introducing artifacts. We observed that, in the presence of maleic chitosan, the ACC films are formed through a particle buildup process, with aggregation and coalescence occurring simultaneously. Nanoparticles with a size of less than 10 nm appear to be the basic units responsible for such self-organization. We suggest that the acid polysaccharide plays an important role in forming and stabilizing these nanoparticles, and we propose a colloidal nanoparticle self-organization model to explain the formation of the ACC films.
PMID: 19199735 [found with GoPubMed]
38: Biomaterials 2009 Feb;30(5):879-91
The enhancement of the immune response against S. equi antigens through the intranasal administration of poly-epsilon-caprolactone-based nanoparticles
Florindo, H F, Pandit, S, Lacerda, L, Gonçalves, L M D, Alpar, H O, Almeida, A J, iMED, Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisbon, Portugal
Particles were produced by a double (w/o/w) emulsion solvent evaporation technique and contained mucoadhesive polymers (alginate or chitosan) and absorption enhancers (spermine, oleic acid). Their intranasal administration, particularly those constituted by the mucoadhesive polymers, increased the immunogenicity and mucosal immune responses (SIgA) to the antigen. The inclusion of cholera toxin B subunit in the formulations successfully further activated the paths leading to Th1 and Th2 cells. Therefore, those PCL nanospheres are potential carriers for the delivery of S.equi antigens to protect animals against strangles.
PMID: 19027152 [found with GoPubMed]
39: Tissue Eng Part C Methods 2009 Feb;
Characterization of Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering by Benchtop-MRI
Nitzsche, H, Metz, H, Lochmann, A, Bernstein, A, Hause, G, Groth, T, Mäder, K, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Pharmacy, Halle/Saale, Germany; email@example.com
Several publications have shown approaches for the optimization of tissue engineering constructs by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). However, the technology is still scarcely used, probably due to the poor spatial resolution of clinical scanners and their temporally limited availability for many researchers. The new Benchtop-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (BT-MRI) equipment used in the present study is much more affordable, e.g. due to the low static magnetic field strength of 0.5 T and the absence of a helium cooling system. In this study, the method of BT-MRI was evaluated for the characterization of a tissue engineering scaffold. Hollow cylinder scaffolds were made of hydroxyapatite (HA), collagen and chitosan and wrapped in a polyglycolic acid mesh. ... The fate of cells, labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO s) and seeded on the scaffold surface, was monitored. For the first time, it was shown that mass transport, inhomogeneities of the HA distribution and localization of SPIO labeled cells are accessible in a tissue engineering scaffold by BT-MRI. Hence, it is demonstrated that BT-MRI is a powerful analytic method for the non-invasive evaluation of tissue engineering constructs.
PMID: 19191523[found with GoPubMed]
40: J Pharm Pharmacol 2009 Feb;61(2):131-42
Review: doxorubicin delivery systems based on chitosan for cancer therapy
Tan, Mei Lin, Choong, Peter F M, Dass, Crispin R, Departments of Orthopaedics and Surgery, University of Melbourne, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
OBJECTIVES: This review sheds insight into an increasingly popular polymer that has been widely explored as a potential drug delivery system. The abundant, biodegradable and biocompatible polysaccharide chitosan, with many other favourable properties, has been favoured as a drug delivery system for the purposes of encapsulating and delivery of doxorubicin with reduced side-effects. ... SUMMARY: Recent advancements in doxorubicin and chitosan technology have shown some preliminary though promising results for cancer therapy.
PMID: 19178759 [found with GoPubMed]
41: J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2009;20(1):115-31
Novel quaternized chitosan and polymeric micelles with cross-linked ionic cores for prolonged release of minocycline
Liang, Xiaofei, Tian, Hui, Luo, Hao, Wang, Hanjie, Chang, Jin, Institute of Nanobiotechnology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, P. R. China
Novel multifunctional octadecyl quaternized carboxymethyl chitosans (OQCMCs) with varying degree of quaternary substitution (DS) and molecular mass were prepared and compared with quaternized chitosan. OQCMCs exhibited excellent solubility both in water and organic solvents. ... Self-assembled OQCMC micelles were evaluated as carrier of the lipophilic drug, minocycline hydrochloride (MH). MH was incorporated into cross-linked ionic cores of micelles with remarkably high efficiency (22.7%, w/w). MH-loaded OQCMC polymeric micelles exhibited a slow steady release profile over a 1-week period at 37 degrees C. The OQCMC micelles are potentially useful for gene and lipophilic drug delivery applications.
PMID: 19105904 [found with GoPubMed]
42: Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2009 Feb;68(2):245-9
Composite microparticle drug delivery systems based on chitosan, alginate and pectin with improved pH-sensitive drug release property
Yu, Cui-Yun, Yin, Bo-Cheng, Zhang, Wei, Cheng, Si-Xue, Zhang, Xian-Zheng, Zhuo, Ren-Xi, Key Laboratory of Biomedical Polymers of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, People's Republic of China
Composite microparticle drug delivery systems based on chitosan, alginate and pectin with improved pH sensitivity were developed for oral delivery of protein drugs, using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model drug. The composite drug-loaded microparticles with a mean particle size less than 200mum were prepared by a convenient shredding method. ... For the composite microparticles with suitable compositions, the releases of BSA at pH 1.2 and pH 5.0 could be effectively sustained, while the releases at pH 7.4, pH 6.8 and pH 6.0 increased significantly, especially in the presence of pectinase. These results clearly suggested that the microparticles had potential for site-specific protein drug delivery through oral administration.
PMID: 19058952 [found with GoPubMed]
43: Bioresour Technol 2009 Feb;100(3):1143-8
Enhancing the adsorption capacities of acid dyes by chitosan nano particles
Cheung, W H, Szeto, Y S, McKay, G, Department of Chemical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong
In the present study, nanochitosan emulsion has been produced in a suspension form by adding tripolyphosphate solution into a chitosan solution drop-wise. The adsorption capacities of four acid dyes, namely, Acid Orange 10 (AO10), Acid Orange 12 (AO12), Acid Red 18 (AR18) and Acid Red 73 (AR73) on nanochitosan, have been determined to be 1.77, 4.33, 1.37 and 2.13 mmol l(-1), respectively. The nanochitosan dye capacities were compared with normal chitosan capacities which were 1.54, 2.66, 1.11 and 1.25 mmol l(-1) for AO10, AO12, AR18 and AR73, respectively. In all cases, the nanochitosan has a higher capacity. The mechanism of acid dye adsorption and the effect of pH are also discussed.
PMID: 18829305 [found with GoPubMed]
44: J Biomed Mater Res A 2009 Jan;88(1):140-8
Novel polyion complex micelles for liver-targeted delivery of diammonium glycyrrhizinate: in vitro and in vivo characterization
Yang, Ke Wei, Li, Xin Ru, Yang, Zhuo Li, Li, Ping Zhu, Wang, Fei, Liu, Yan, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100083, China
Polyion complex micelles (PIC micelles) based on methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted-chitosan (mPEG-g-Chitosan) and lactose-conjugated PEG-grafted-chitosan (Lac-PEG-g-Chitosan) were designed as carriers for anionic drugs. Diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG)-loaded conventional PIC micelles (mPIC micelles) and lactose-modified PIC micelles (Lac-PIC micelles) were prepared successfully with encapsulation efficiency of 97.4% and 96.7%, respectively. ... The pharmacokinetic experiments showed that the area under the curve of DG plasma concentration-time profile in rats for mPIC micelles and Lac-PIC micelles were 1.2 times and 0.4 times higher than that for DG injection, respectively. The liver targeting ability of both mPIC micelles and Lac-PIC micelles was evaluated in rats, revealing that Lac-PIC micelles could deliver more DG to liver than mPIC micelles. Therefore, the Lac-PIC micelles prepared in this study were promising liver-targeted nanocarriers for DG.
PMID: 18260143 [found with GoPubMed]